New ultracapacitor recharges in under a millisecond

first_img © 2010 More information: John R. Miller et al., Graphene Double-Layer Capacitor with ac Line-Filtering Performance, Science 24 September 2010: Vol. 329. no. 5999, pp. 1637 – 1639. DOI:10.1126/science.1194372 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. ( — A new ultracapacitor or electric double-layer capacitor (DLC) design has been announced in the journal Science this week, and could pave the way for smaller and lighter portable electronics devices. Ultracapacitors Make City Buses Cheaper, Greener Explore further (A) Plan SEM micrograph of coated Ni electrode. (B) SEM micrograph of a coated fiber, showing plan and shallow-angle views. Image credit: Science, DOI:10.1126/science.1194372 Citation: New ultracapacitor recharges in under a millisecond (2010, September 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Ultracapacitors are capable of charging and discharging in only seconds and this gives them an advantage over batteries, which take much longer, and make them extremely useful in applications such as regenerative braking. However, for some applications even a few seconds is too long, and this is where a new nanoscale ultracapacitor comes in. Researchers in the US have built an ultracapacitor from nanometer-scale fins of graphene, and this design gives them a device that can charge/discharge in under 200 microseconds. Ultracapacitors store charge in electric fields between conducting surfaces, so a larger surface area of conducting surfaces enables the device to hold more charge. A larger amount of stored charge enables ultracapacitors to work in devices needing more energy than ordinary capacitors can provide, and they can deliver the energy much faster than a battery.A team of researchers led by John Miller, president of JME, an electrochemical capacitor company based in Shaker Heights, Ohio has been able to increase the speed of the ultracapacitor by redesigning the electrodes to give more surface area. The new electrode, developed by Ron Outlaw, a team member from the College of William and Mary, in Williamsburg, Virginia, consists of sheets of graphene sticking up vertically from a graphite base. The graphene sheets are made of carbon one atom thick, and grown by a plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition process. The graphite base is 10 nanometers thick. Miller described the design as resembling “rows of 600-nanometer tall potato chips standing on edge.”The design allows for much faster charging and recharging than stacked graphene sheets used in earlier ultracapacitors or the pored surfaces of activated carbon ultracapacitors.According to Miller’s team, the new ultracapacitor could replace bulky capacitors in portable devices to free up more space while still smoothing out peaks and troughs in power supplies. It has been tested in a filtering circuit in an AC rectifier, a task at which other ultracapacitors fail. (AC rectifiers tend to leave a voltage ripple that the capacitor smooths out.) Other ultracapacitors fail because their porous electrodes make them act like resistors in filter circuits. The new ultracapacitor worked well in the test, which means they could replace the current capacitors, which are six times larger. Ron Outlaw said work is continuing on increasing the capacitance and attempting to make the graphene sheets taller and more parallel with the aim of finding the perfect balance of maximum charge storage with minimum restriction of ion flow in the electrolyte. As size and weight of the ultracapacitors are reduced, they will find more applications in areas such as airlines, the military, and NASA.last_img read more

Windows 8 readies pushbutton PC refresh reset

first_imgResetting your Win 8 PC More information: … d-reset-your-pc.aspx Both functions will be at the push of a button to help users easily reset or refresh their PCs. “The power of personalization is something we all love about PCs,” said a Microsoft Steven Sinofsky,” but sometimes there is good reason to want to roll back to an earlier state. Most consumer electronics devices today can be reset to some factory state, and so we built this capability into Windows 8 too.” In the post authored by Desmond Lee, a Microsoft program manager, the new push-button options will empower the user to refresh or reset their machines. The latter function will be useful for those who want to give their machines to somebody else, such as a family member or coworker, and at the same time want to scrub everything off that they have downloaded. Hitting reset allows complete program and data wipeout and a fresh Windows install.As for the refresh function, Lee said that “misconfigured settings are sometimes the cause of problems that lead to customers needing to refresh their PCs. To ensure that Refresh is both effective in fixing problems and in making sure customers don’t lose settings that they might have trouble reconfiguring, we’ve thought a great deal about which settings to preserve.”In the refresh, Windows 8 is to preserve wireless network connections, mobile broadband connections, BitLocker and BitLocker To Go settings, Drive letter assignments, personalization settings such as lock screen background and desktop wallpaper. While the core settings are backed up, the refresh will not keep file-type associations, display settings, and Windows firewall settings.As for business environments, where Windows 8 might be deployed across the entire corporation’s PCs, a blogger outside Microsoft said that this does not necessarily spell out the demise of IT support; only that their troubleshooting rounds may be eased.In sum, the reset removes all personal data, apps, and settings from the PC and reinstall Windows. The refresh keeps all personal data, Metro style apps, and important settings from the PC, but reinstalls Windows. The time required doing a refresh or a reset is an estimated eight minutes and 22 seconds for a refresh and six minutes and 12 seconds for a quick reset. The Register notes that these numbers are based on a Samsung PC with an i5 processor and 4GB of RAM running the Windows 8 developer preview handed out at the Build Conference in September. A thorough reset takes 23 minutes and 52 seconds. The “thorough” option will write random patterns to every sector of the drive, overwriting existing data visible to the operating system. Microsoft gives further peek at Windows 8 © 2011 PhysOrg.comcenter_img ( — Windows 8 is to deliver two new features that could help mute a past history of being the company that delivers blue screens of death and malware magnets. Briefly, Windows 8 is going to make Windows easier to deal with than ever before. Considering the competition Microsoft now faces, the time is ripe for this kind of pronouncement. In a blog dated January 4, the Windows 8 engineering team reveals two new options, refresh and reset. Citation: Windows 8 readies push-button PC refresh, reset (2012, January 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Spontaneous wave function collapse can suppress acoustic Schrodinger cat states

first_img © 2014 Citation: Spontaneous wave function collapse can suppress acoustic Schrodinger cat states (2014, October 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from “Different people emphasize different concerns about Cats,” Lajos Diósi, a physicist the Wigner Research Center for Physics in Budapest, Hungary, told “Some people emphasize different ones at different times. So, allow me to pick up two arguments. Penrose (in my words): A Cat implies superposition of macroscopically different space-times, making physical time elusive. Myself: If we measure a Cat state a la von Neumann (why not?), then the collapse will macroscopically violate many conservation laws.”To address such problems, Diósi has expanded upon a model in which gravity-related spontaneous wave function collapses can suppress Schrödinger cat states, forcing them to take on only one value. Diósi’s paper on suppressing cat states is published in a recent issue of the New Journal of Physics.Several years ago, Diósi and Sir Roger Penrose each independently derived a model which can cause the spontaneous collapse of a cat state. This model came to be known as the DP model. According to the model, the measure of “catness” can be quantified as the difference between the two gravitational fields corresponding to the two states that make up a cat state. The greater the catness, the shorter the cat state’s decay time. Traditionally, the DP model is applied to single macroscopic degrees of freedom, such as the center of mass of a macroscopic object. In the new paper, Diósi has for the first time derived the DP model for the acoustic degree of freedom of a macroscopic object. Basically, he shows that macroscopic excitations, or sound waves, vibrating inside a macroscopic object such as a large rock will spontaneously decohere, meaning any acoustic cat states will collapse. The findings open up new perspectives on the concept of macroscopic superposition.”Spontaneous models are usually thought to influence bodies under extreme isolated conditions [at very cold temperatures],” Diósi said. “I discussed the possibility that the DP model might be significant in common phenomena. I don’t mean a directly testable effect in acoustic waves, I mean a first step toward a theoretical search for parametric regimes where spontaneous collapse acts in the common matter of a common state.” Micro-macro entangled ‘cat states’ could one day test quantum gravity Explore further Schrödinger’s cat: a cat, a flask of poison, and a radioactive source are placed in a sealed box. If an internal monitor detects radioactivity (i.e. a single atom decaying), the flask is shattered, releasing the poison that kills the cat. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics implies that after a while, the cat is simultaneously alive and dead. Yet, when one looks in the box, one sees the cat either alive or dead, not both alive and dead. This poses the question of when exactly quantum superposition ends and reality collapses into one possibility or the other. Credit: Wikipedia / CC BY-SA 3.0center_img Journal information: New Journal of Physics ( —Schrödinger’s famous thought experiment in which a cat hidden in a box can be both dead and alive at the same time demonstrates the concept of superposition on the macroscopic scale. However, the existence of such “cat states” (or simply “Cats”) would be problematic in reality, as cat states not only go against common sense, but also pose problems for understanding gravity and spacetime. More information: Lajos Diósi. “Gravity-related spontaneous wave function collapse in bulk matter.” New Journal of Physics. DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/16/10/105006 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Study effort leads to estimates of number of tree species in tropics

first_img Inga spiralis are plants in the bean family (Fabaceae) is only found in Panama. Many areas in the tropics have still never been thoroughly explored by botanists. Credit: ourtesy of STRI/ Carmen Galdames Faster evolution not responsible for tropical biodiversity Citation: Study effort leads to estimates of number of tree species in tropics (2015, June 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from The team also notes that the three main tropical regions far outpace other regions in tree diversity—North America, for example, they report has less than a thousand individual species, and the temperate forests in Europe have as few as 124. They also note that a large number of species in general does not equate to large numbers of individual members of a species—many of the species samples they found turned out to be quite rare, suggesting that many of them may be at risk. Explore further More information: An estimate of the number of tropical tree species, J. W. Ferry Slik, PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1423147112 AbstractThe high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher’s alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ∼40,000 and ∼53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ∼19,000–25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ∼4,500–6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciencescenter_img © 2015 (—An unusually large team of researchers (over 140) from all walks of life have worked together to provide a new estimate on the total number of tree species in the three main tropical regions on planet Earth: the Americas (neotropics), Indo-Pacific and tropical parts of Africa. In outlining their findings in their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team reports that assumptions about species diversity may have been over-generalized in the past. For many years, the general consensus has been that the Americas have the richest diversity of tree growth in the world, also estimates of such diversity have ranged from thirty-seven thousand to fifty thousand worldwide—the researchers with this new effort say both assumptions are wrong. They found that the number of species in the Indo-Pacific tropics was nearly equal to that of the Americas, and that species numbers are closer to forty to fifty thousand in total. The researchers conclude that their findings regarding species variety numbers in the Indo-Pacific tropics make sense when considering the geography, history and topography of places such as India, Southeast Asia, Madagascar, etc. They also noted that there appeared to be few species shared among the tropical regions.To come to these conclusions, the researchers collected data from a variety of sources, covering approximately 657,000 individual trees and over 11,000 species. More specifically, they found that tree species in the Americas and the Indo-Pacific tropics amounted to 19,000 to 25,000 each. Africa on the other hand had far fewer species, likely due, the team claims, to extinctions that have occurred since the Pleistocene and shrinkage of forests in general on the continent. Tropical forest in Martinique near the city of Fond St-Denis. Credit: Wikipedia This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Graphene made superconductive by doping with lithium atoms

first_img More information: Evidence for superconductivity in Li-decorated monolayer graphene, arXiv:1508.05925 [cond-mat.supr-con] graphene exhibits many spectacular electronic properties, with superconductivity being arguably the most notable exception. It was theoretically proposed that superconductivity might be induced by enhancing the electron-phonon coupling through the decoration of graphene with an alkali adatom superlattice [Profeta et al. Nat. Phys. 8, 131-134 (2012)]. While experiments have indeed demonstrated an adatom-induced enhancement of the electron-phonon coupling, superconductivity has never been observed. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) we show that lithium deposited on graphene at low temperature strongly modifies the phonon density of states, leading to an enhancement of the electron-phonon coupling of up to λ≃0.58. On part of the graphene-derived π∗-band Fermi surface, we then observe the opening of a Δ≃0.9 meV temperature-dependent pairing gap. This result suggests for the first time, to our knowledge, that Li-decorated monolayer graphene is indeed superconducting with Tc≃5.9K.Press release (—A team of researchers from Germany and Canada has found a way to make graphene superconductive—by doping it with lithium atoms. In their paper they have uploaded to the preprint server arXiv, the team describes the process they used and the results they obtained when testing it. Charge-transfer doping of graphene by lithium adatoms. Credit: arXiv:1508.05925 [cond-mat.supr-con] Samsung develops lithium-ion battery with nearly double the life By now, most everyone in the science community is aware of graphene, the single carbon atom layer of material that is being studied to figure out how it can be mass produced and connected to other devices to take advantage of its superior electrical properties. Some have also been looking into whether the material could be made into a superconductor—prior research a decade ago showed that graphite could be made superconductive by coating it with other materials. Since that time, the search has been on to find just the right coating for graphene. Three years ago, a group in Italy created a model that suggested lithium might be the right choice, now, based on the work done by this latest team, it appears that they might have been right.In this effort, the researches first grew samples of graphene on a silicon-carbide substrate—those samples were then placed in a vacuum and cooled to 8K and were then “decorated” very precisely with a layer of lithium atoms. To convince themselves that the result was superconductive, the team tested the material with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy—doing so revealed that electrons sent through the material slowed down, which they suggest was the result of electron-phonon coupling (the creation of Cooper pairs)—one of the hallmarks of a superconductor. The team also identified an energy gap between those electrons that were conducting and those that were not, energy that would be needed to brake electron-phonon coupling.Further tests will have to be done to discover if it is possible to demonstrate a complete loss of electrical resistance and the expulsion of an external magnetic field, tests that can prove the material to be a true superconductor. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In related news, another group working at Sungkyunkwan University in South Korea has also been working with coating graphene with lithium and in their paper also uploaded to arXiv, they claim they have observed superconductivity in samples of layers of graphene doped with lithium.center_img © 2015 University of British Columbia physicists have been able to create the first superconducting graphene sample by coating it with lithium atoms. Credit: University of British Columbia Journal information: arXiv Citation: Graphene made superconductive by doping with lithium atoms (2015, September 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Explore furtherlast_img read more

Electrically tunable metasurfaces pave the way toward dynamic holograms

first_img Journal information: Applied Physics Letters High-efficiency color holograms created using a metasurface made of nanoblocks A new metasurface composed of silicon nanodisks integrated into a liquid crystal can be electrically tuned by turning a voltage “on” and “off.” The change in voltage changes the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules, which in turn changes the optical transmission of the metasurface. Credit: Komar et al. Published by AIP Publishing Citation: Electrically tunable metasurfaces pave the way toward dynamic holograms (2017, March 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from (—Dynamic holograms allow three-dimensional images to change over time like a movie, but so far these holograms are still being developed. The development of dynamic holograms may now get a boost from recent research on optical metasurfaces, a type of photonic surface with tunable optical properties. More information: Andrei Komar et al. “Electrically tunable all-dielectric optical metasurfaces based on liquid crystals.” Applied Physics Letters. DOI: 10.1063/1.4976504ABSTRACTWe demonstrate electrical tuning of the spectral response of a Mie-resonant dielectric metasurface consisting of silicon nanodisks embedded into liquid crystals. We use the reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in a moderate applied electric field to alter the anisotropic permittivity tensor around the metasurface. By switching a control voltage “on” and “off,” we induce a large spectral shift of the metasurface resonances, resulting in an absolute transmission modulation of up to 75%. Our experimental demonstration of voltage control of dielectric metasurfaces paves the way for new types of electrically tunable metadevices, including dynamic displays and holograms.center_img In a new study published in Applied Physics Letters, a team of scientists at The Australian National University in Canberra, Australia; Friedrich Schiller University Jena in Jena, Germany; and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, US, has demonstrated a new way to tune optical metasurfaces.A metasurface is a thin sheet consisting of a periodic array of nanoscale elements. The exact dimensions of these elements is critical, since they are specifically designed to manipulate certain wavelengths of light in particular ways that enhance their electric and magnetic properties. Here, the scientists demonstrated how to manipulate a metasurface by applying an electrical voltage. By switching the control voltage “on” and “off,” the researchers could change the optical transmission of the metasurface. For instance, they could tune the transmission from opaque to the transparent regime for certain wavelengths, achieving a transmittance change of up to 75%. The voltage switch could also change the phase of certain wavelengths by up to 180°.”We demonstrate a new technology platform that enables tuning of optical metasurfaces with large contrast by simple application of a voltage,” Dragomir Neshev, a physics professor at The Australian National University, told “From an application perspective, it adds to the significance that our tuning concept is based on a similar technology as used in commercial liquid crystal displays, which would largely facilitate the translation of our concept to real-world applications of tunable metasurfaces.”The way this tuning works is that the voltage physically changes the elements of the metasurface. The metasurface is made of a square lattice of 600-nm-diameter silicon nanodisks embedded into a liquid crystal. When the voltage is “off,” the elongated molecules of the liquid crystal lie parallel to the metasurface. Turning the voltage “on” reorients the liquid crystal molecules so that they stand up perpendicular to the metasurface. Light waves interact with the metasurface differently depending on the orientation of the liquid crystal.While other methods of metasurface tuning have been suggested, these have various drawbacks, such as that they work slowly and require assistance that makes them impractical for immediate applications. Since the new electrically tunable metasurface works quickly and simply, the researchers expect that the method could have a wide variety of applications, including dynamic holograms, tunable imaging, and active beam steering.”Regarding a long-term vision or inspiration for the development of dynamic holographic devices, we can watch almost any science fiction movie,” Neshev said. “Most of them feature holographic man-machine interaction devices for visualization and communication purposes, where the hologram moves and changes in time based on user input. “While we are still far from this goal, a realistic medium-term application of our metasurfaces are tunable lenses for laser microscopy applications and beam shapers with enhanced functionalities, such as polarization selective response. Active beam steering or beam shaping could be applied in communications or as components in optical laboratory setups.” © 2017 Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Micromotors are powered by bacteria controlled by light

first_imgA micromotor, with microchambers shown in the inner cylindrical structure. Credit: Vizsnyiczai et al. Published in Nature Communications. Citation: Micromotors are powered by bacteria, controlled by light (2017, July 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Video of micromotors rotating in unison. Credit: Vizsnyiczai et al. This is essentially what the micromotors do. The microchambers along the edges of each micromotor are tilted at an angle of 45°, which maximizes the total torque with which the bacteria can cause the motors to rotate. In their design, the researchers also built a radial ramp with strategically placed barriers that direct the swimming bacteria into the microchambers. In experiments, the researchers found that a micromotor’s rotational speed increases linearly with the number of captured bacteria, and they could easily achieve rotational speeds of 20 revolutions per minute. Another important requirement for any bacteria-powered micromotor is the ability to control the micromotor’s motion. To do this, the researchers genetically modified the E. coli strain to express a light-driven proton pump called proteorhodopsin that uses photon energy to pump protons against the electrochemical gradient, which increases the bacteria’s swimming speeds. By illuminating the bacteria-powered micromotors with different light intensities, the researchers could then control the speed of the micromotors.In order for these systems to be used in practical applications, it’s also important that all of the micromotors in an array have average speeds that are uniform and have little fluctuation. With the help of a feedback algorithm that uniformly illuminates the system every 10 seconds, the researchers demonstrated that the micromotors can effectively be synchronized with very little variation in speed. Using this light-control method, the researchers could rotate a set of micromotors in unison at a particular speed.The bacteria-propelled micromotors have potential medical applications, such as drug and cargo delivery, which the researchers plan to investigate in the future. Microgears rotate when pushed by tiny motors More information: Gaszton Vizsnyiczai et al. “Light controlled 3D micromotors powered by bacteria.” Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15974 The researchers, led by Roberto Di Leonardo, a physics professor at Sapienza Università di Roma and at NANOTEC-CNR, both in Rome, have published a paper on the bacteria-powered micromotors in a recent issue of Nature Communications.”Our design combines a high rotational speed with an enormous reduction in fluctuation when compared to previous attempts based on wild-type bacteria and flat structures,” said Di Leonardo. “We can produce large arrays of independently controlled rotors that use light as the ultimate energy source. These devices could serve one day as cheap and disposable actuators in microrobots for collecting and sorting individual cells inside miniaturized biomedical laboratories.”A fluid such as the one used here, which contains large amounts of swimming bacteria, is called an “active fluid” due to the mechanical energy it contains. In order for active fluids to be used as a fuel for propelling micromachines, the disordered motion of the bacteria must be controlled so that all (or most) of the bacteria move in the same direction. (—When researchers deposit a drop of fluid containing thousands of free-swimming, genetically engineered E. coli onto an array of micromotors, within minutes the micromotors begin rotating. Some of the individual bacteria have swum head-first into one of the 15 microchambers etched on the outer edge of each micromotor, and with their flagella protruding outside the microchambers, together the swimming bacteria cause the micromotors to rotate, somewhat similar to how a flowing river rotates a watermill. Explore further © 2017 Journal information: Nature Communications This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

New Caledonian crows found able to infer weight of an object by

first_imgCredit: CC0 Public Domain Crows and kea parrots found to learn usefulness of objects similar to the way human babies do it Citation: New Caledonian crows found able to infer weight of an object by watching how it behaves in the wind (2019, January 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Humans can easily gauge the weight of objects by their behavior under windy conditions. In breezy conditions, a napkin will fly off a table at an outdoor café, for example, but a fork generally will not. We prepare for this eventuality by placing something heavy on the napkin, but not on the fork. But until now, no other creature has been found to have this ability.To find out if New Caledonian crows might have this ability, the researchers went out into the wild and captured 12 specimens and brought them back to their lab. All of the birds were taught to use the weight of an object as the criteria needed in order to receive a food reward. Half were taught that the lighter of two objects was needed, while the other half were taught that it was the heavier object that was needed to get their reward.Next, the researchers strung the same objects a few inches off the ground, one by one, and pointed a fan at them to simulate a breeze. The light objects would blow around easily, while the heavy ones remained stationary. The birds were then brought individually into the test area. Each watched as two objects were blown by the fan—the crows were then allowed to pick one of the objects as a means for receiving their treat.The researchers report that the birds were 73 percent correct in choosing the object that would get them their reward, all without having touched the objects prior to choosing them. They claim that this very strongly suggests that the birds were able to figure out which of the objects were heavier and which were lighter simply by watching how they behaved under windy conditions. A team of researchers with members affiliated with the University of Auckland, the University of Cambridge, Bertha von Suttner University and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History has found evidence that suggests New Caledonian crows can infer the weight of an object by watching how it behaves in the wind. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes experiments they carried out with crows they captured and what they found. © 2019 Science X Networkcenter_img Explore further More information: New Caledonian crows infer the weight of objects from observing their movements in a breeze, Proceedings of the Royal Society B (2019). … .1098/rspb.2018.2332 Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Xray observations reveal insights into the nature of the pulsar wind nebula

first_img Radio nebula discovered around the pulsar PSR J0855–4644 Citation: X-ray observations reveal insights into the nature of the pulsar wind nebula 3C 58 (2019, April 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Analysis of the new data from X-ray observations using NASA’s NuSTAR spacecraft and archival data from the agency’s Chandra X-ray space observatory, has yielded more insights into the nature of a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) named 3C 58. Results of the analysis, presented in a paper published April 12 on, could also shed more light on particle distribution in the population of known PWNe. Explore further © 2019 Science X Network PWNe are nebulae powered by the wind of a pulsar. Pulsar wind is composed of charged particles and when it collides with the pulsar’s surroundings, in particular with the slowly expanding supernova ejecta, it develops a PWN. Observations of PWNe have shown that the particles in these objects lose their energy to radiation and become less energetic with distance from the central pulsar. In particular, X-ray studies of PWNe, especially using spatially-integrated spectra in the X-ray band, have the potential of uncovering important information about particle flow in these nebulae.Located some 6,500 to 10,000 light years away from the Earth, 3C 58 is a young PWN with torus-jet structure and powered by the 65-milisecond pulsar PSR J0205+6449. While the object has been intensively studied in the soft X-ray band (below 8.0 keV) and hence its soft X-ray spectrum is well modeled, astronomers are interested in verifying if the spectrum extends to hard X-ray band above 10 keV.In order to check this, a group of researchers led by Hongjun An of Chungbuk National University in Cheongju, South Korea employed the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) spacecraft to perform spectral analysis of 3C 58 up to 20 keV. They also reanalyzed the Chandra data for comparison with results from NuSTAR.The astronomers measured the energy-dependent morphology, spatial variation of the spectral index, and a spatially integrated broadband X-ray spectrum of 3C 58. “These measurements are used to infer properties of 3C 58 with synchrotron-radiation scenarios,” the researchers wrote in the paper.The results indicate that the size of the 3C 58 decreases with increasing energy, what, according to the researchers is due to the synchrotron burn-off effect. The data also show that the spectrum is softer in outer regions of this PWN.Moreover, the researchers found a hint of a spectral break in the spatially integrated X-ray spectrum and a break in the radial profile of the spectral index of 3C 58.”The radial profile of the spectral index breaks at R ≈ 80, and the spatially integrated X-ray spectrum of 3C 58 shows a hint of a spectral break at ≈ 25 keV,” the paper reads.According to the study, the break in the radial profile indicates a maximum electron energy of about 200 TeV, what is larger than previously estimated. When it comes to the spectral break, the data suggests a maximum electron energy of approximately 140 TeV for an assumed magnetic field strength of 80 μG. Additionally, the strength of the magnetic field in 3C 58 was calculated to be between 30 and 200 μG.All in all, the astronomers concluded that their study could advance our knowledge about acceleration and emission models of PWNe. They noted that in the case of 3C 58, its well measured broadband spectral energy distribution and the possible X-ray break, have the potential to provide new insights into particle acceleration and flow in PWNe. More information: Hongjun An. NuSTAR hard X-ray studies of the pulsar wind nebula 3C~58. arXiv:1904.05991 [astro-ph.HE]. NuSTAR images of 3C 58 in six energy bands. The energy bands for the images are 3–4.5 keV, 4.5–7 keV, 7–12 keV, 12–20 keV, 20–40 keV, and 40–60 keV from left to right and top to bottom. The images are smoothed and the scales are adjusted to have a value of 1 at the maximum for better legibility. Chandra white contours are overlaid in the top-left panel for reference. Credit: An et al., 2019. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Bolly number for Chinese new year

first_imgChinese opera singer Bowang surprised one and all when she belted out a hit Bollywood number from the Shah Rukh Khan-starrer Mohabbatein at the Chinese Spring Festival 2013.After her opera performance, she sang the hit Hindi song Ankhein khuli ho ya hon bandh at the FICCI Auditorium here Monday.The festival, organised by the India China Economic and Cultural Council here on the occasion of the Chinese New year, which fell on 10 February, also saw a spectacular display of acrobatics, group dances, and traditional music of China. The highlight of the festival was acrobatics performed by Peng Li and Guang Zhang.   There were performances by Sihong Zho, a dance performance, bits of Peking Opera, solo dance. Baba Deep Singh Ranjeet Akhara did the gatka (a form of Indian martial arts).last_img read more

Regional parties must unite against BJP says Mamata

first_imgKolkata: The BJP is witnessing an unholy omen in the results of the by-election in the Assembly and Lok Sabha seats in several states which have been announced on Thursday, said Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee. Banerjee said the results highlight the people’s frustration towards the saffron party. In the past four years, all steps taken by the BJP are anti-people and their condition has turned from bad to worse. Also, the result which was announced on Thursday is a protest against the communal forces. “We all want to live in peace and the people of India do not like the politics of hate and division.”She maintained that from the victory, the Opposition has got the lesson that the BJP can easily be defeated if they are united. “It is a major boost for the regional parties. JMM has done well in Jharkhand. RJD, RLD, SP, BSP and CPIM have got seats where they are strong. Though the Shiv Sena candidate was defeated, the margin is low,” she said adding: “We must keep in mind that in all the states the most powerful political party will have to be supported.” She said: “The results are an indication of what is going to happen in 2019 Lok Sabha polls and are a warning for the BJP”.Banerjee, who has been talking to the Opposition leaders for quite some time and upholding the idea of formation of a Federal Front, reiterated that to save India all the regional parties must grow.”In India, regional parties are becoming stronger and stronger with every passing day. Laluji is in jail but see his party nominee has won the election. Ajit Singh’s RLD candidate has also won,” she said adding “if the Opposition is united, then it is not difficult to defeat BJP.”last_img read more

Your season of birth determines risk of allergy

first_imgThe time and date of birth determines our horoscope and the characteristics associated with it. However, a new study reveals a specific marker in our genes, which gives us the horoscope by the seasons of birth and shows how it influences so many things in our life. The study showed that the season a person is born in influences a wide range of things: from risk of allergic disease, to height and lifespan. But, relatively little is known about how a one-time exposure, such as the season of birth, could hold lasting effects. A specific marker that has been discovered on human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been instrumental in linking the season of birth to risk of allergy in later life. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“It might sound like a horoscope by the seasons, but now we have scientific evidence for how that horoscope could work. Because season of birth influences so many things, the epigenetic marks discovered in this study could also potentially be the mechanism for other seasonally influenced diseases and traits too, not just allergy,” said lead author Gabrielle Lockett from University of Southampton in Britain. The findings, published in the journal Allergy, revealed that particular epigenetic marks (specifically, DNA methylation) were associated with season of birth and still present 18 years later. Also, this epigenetic marks exposed the link to allergic disease, for example people born in autumn had an increased risk of eczema compared to those born in spring.“Epigenetic marks are attached onto DNA, and can influence gene expression (the process by which specific genes are activated to produce a required protein) for years, maybe even into the next generation,” explained one of the researchers John Holloway, professor at Southampton University.last_img read more

History of IndoPersian literature

first_imgAn exhibition titled Qand-e-Farsi wa Tootiyaan-e-Hind Of Persian Candy and Indian Parrots and an evening of Indo-Persian poetry in Dastan-Goi style is being hosted by the India International Centre in the national Capital this month.Farsi verse and prose have been immensely popular in India. Till very recently, Farsi was a language of choice for many Indian writers and poets and Farsi was the language of the court and high society. Starting with Amir Khusro, Bedil Azimabadi Meer and Ghalib scores of Indian writers and poets have written in Farsi.  Also Read – Add new books to your shelfSeveral Indian classics have also been translated into Farsi over the centuries and Farsi writers have written volumes about India. The literary interaction starts with the translation of the Vedic Sanskrit Panchtantra into early Farsi or Pehlavi. Then on, from Rumi’s poetry being relished in Farsi and translated into Indian languages to the Bhagwat Gita and the Upanishads in Farsi, to Farsi Ash’aar and Farsi travelogues; and tomes like Baburnama and Akbarnama – the list is comprehensive. Each display comes with an information brief in Farsi and English which tells the viewer about the selected item.  Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe cultural evening showcases the best of Farsi poetry in India through the ages in Dastan-goi style. A selection from indo-Persian poetry through the centuries would be read by performers with a narrator providing interesting facts and background of the works being read. The passages have been selected to represent a historical chronology of the influence of the Persian language in Indian literary writing. The poetry recitation programme is scheduled to take place on September 28 at 6:30pm. When: Ongoing till October 1 Where: India International Centre Timings: 11AM – 7PMlast_img read more

Luxury League Awards Felicitating the revivalists of Khadi

first_imgAmidst much enthusiasm and gaiety, the Luxury League 2017 Award was given to Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) Chairman Vinai Kumar Saxena, in recognition of his significant contribution for the revival of Khadi. The award was given during a function at Hotel Hyatt in New Delhi, recently.Saxena, who received this award for his herculean efforts for the ‘revival of Khadi’ in the ‘Conservation of Heritage and Culture’ class, from Jayant Sinha – the Minister of State for Civil Aviation, said that his definition of luxury has changed during the course of time and subsequent responsibilities. “When I was a corporate man, spending quality time with friends and colleagues was a luxury for me. But now as Chairman of KVIC, which revolves around the Gandhian philosophy of self-reliance, I now get luxury in ensuring the bread and livelihood to last man among our valuable artisans. Luxury has no meaning if it does not kindle other’s lamp of luxury,” he said. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe other recipients of the award included Mridula Sinha, the Governor of Goa, Alexander Zeigler, France Ambassador to India, Amarendra Khatua , former ICCR director general, noted hotelier Arvind Singh Mewar, journalist Rajiv Makhni and art director Sanjoy K Roy.Earlier the programme was kicked off, when Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi, the Minister of Minority Affairs, inaugurated the function. The luxury league round table 2017 is an initiative to promote luxury as a powerful agent of change by leveraging India’s art and crafts with the intention to create global luxury brands from India.last_img read more

BJP Trinamool delegations visit tense Sandeshkhali in Bengal

first_imgKolkata: A BJP delegation, led by the party’s state President Dilip Ghosh on Sunday visited the troubled Sandeshkhali area in Bengal’s North 24 Parganas district where at least three persons were killed in a clash between the saffron outfit and the ruling Trinamool Congress. According to local residents, the clashes broke out in Sandeshkhali’s Hatgachi area over forceful removal of BJP flags on Saturday afternoon. The police has so far confirmed deaths of three political workers — two from BJP and one from Trinamool Congress in the incident, though the two parties claim at least eight deaths. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata State BJP sources claimed that five party workers — Pradip Mondal, Tapan Mondal, Sukanta Mondal, Devdas Mondal and Shankar Mondal — were shot dead from point blank range by TMC backed men, while 18 others had gone missing. The TMC accused the BJP of fomenting unrest and killing at least three of its party workers, “two of whom were thrown into the river”. The state BJP leaders including Ghosh, Mukul Roy, Locket Chatterjee, Shantanu Thakur, Jagannath Chatterjee met the family members of the slain party workers and also visited the Basirhat Hospital, where the injured BJP activists have been admitted. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in state “The Basirhat Hospital authorities are deliberately delaying the process of handing over the dead bodies of our workers. We are waiting,” Ghosh told IANS. The BJP leader said his party would demand compensation from the Bengal government for the bereaved family. “We will continue our protest against this brutality. We will hold a rally here on June 12,” he said. BJP workers also blocked roads and held demonstrations in Bankura, Hoogly, Howrah, Midnapore, Malda, Barackpore, Naihati and North and South Kolkata. A number of BJP men were arrested while holding a protest near the party’s state headquarters in central Kolkata. Meanwhile, a Trinamool Congress (TMC) delegation comprising state Food Minister Jyotipriyo Mullick and senior leaders Tapas Roy and Madan Mitra visited the family of Kayum Mollah, one of the dead party workers. With graphic images of those slain in the clashes circulating on the social media since Saturday night, internet services were suspended in the Basirhat Lok Sabha constituency. A large contingent of police and Rapid Action Force personnel have also been deployed in the area to avoid any untoward incident.last_img read more

Rainy spell brings respite for city dwellers to continue for next 48

first_imgKolkata: Rain lashed various parts of South Bengal including the city on Sunday afternoon, giving respite to the people from the rising discomfort level in the past few days.Sunday’s rain not only brought relief for the people from the sweltering heat and high level of humidity, but also brought down the mercury by a few notches. The discomfort level in the city and other South Bengal districts was on the rise with the humidity shooting up for the past few weeks. The city dwellers were also facing a tremendous heat spell. The fishermen in the coastal districts have already been asked not to voyage into the sea in the next 72 hours, as strong winds would be blowing through the region. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataIt may be mentioned here that the Regional Meteorological Centre in Alipore on Saturday predicted heavy rainfall in all the coastal districts due to a low pressure trough formed over Bay of Bengal. As predicted, the coastal districts received heavy rainfall on Sunday, as the low pressure trough gained some strength. According to the weather office prediction, all the South Bengal districts will receive light to moderate rainfall for the next two days due to the impact of the low pressure trough. A strong breeze may be sweeping through different parts of South Bengal along with rain. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateSaturday’s rainfall brought temporary relief from the heat, but the city dwellers felt the sultry weather from Sunday morning again as the temperature rose. Another short spell later in the day, however, provided people some respite. “A low pressure trough formed over Bay of Bengal will further intensify, thereby contributing to more rainfall in all the South Bengal districts in the next two days. The coastal districts will receive heavy rainfall,” a senior weather official said. The districts like North 24-Parganas, South 24-Parganas, Howrah, Hooghly, Jhargram and West Midnapore may receive rainfall coupled with lightning, while North Bengal districts will receive light to moderate rainfall in the next 48 hours.last_img read more

The Herd Hierarchy NFL Week 1

first_imgEvery Tuesday during the football season, after all the NFL games have been played, Colin releases his Herd Hierarchy. Only the 10 best make it, the rest just need to do better. It causes tears of joy from some fan bases, and stacks of hate mail from others.There was a lot to digest after a busy NFL Week 1. Dak Prescott, Jimmy Garoppolo, and Trevor Siemian made their NFL debuts. Derek Carr and Jameis Winston are ascending. Seattle struggled, and Osweiler and the Texans were better than expected. So who made the cut?Colin’s finally seen all the NFL teams with his own eyes and he’s got a beat on which are the real contenders after Week 1.Here’s the rundown of Colin’s first Herd Hierarchy of the 2016 NFL season. 7. Panthers –  Cam and the Panthers started 2016 the same way they ended 2015; by getting their faces pounded in by the Broncos D. It’s Ok, so does everyone. The good news is they converted on 9 of 15 third downs against the best defense in the league. The Carolina D also forced 3 turnovers. They’ll be fine and should roll over weaker teams. No need to panic.Cam’s pass is TIPPED.And PICKED by @ChrisHarrisJr.@Broncos ball DEEP in @Panthers territory. #Kickoff2016.— NFL (@NFL) September 9, 2016 Steelers –  The Steelers were ruthlessly efficient in their destruction of the Redskins. They converted 64% of their 3rd downs on the road without their full compliment of receivers. Throw in young studs Eli Rogers and Sammie Coates in the mix and they just keep rolling. DeAngelo Williams is the best backup running back in the league in Le’Veon Bell’s absence, and Big Ben to Antonio Brown form the top pass catching combo in the NFL. Steelers are the top dog this week. 4. Bengals – Impressive road win in New York without stud tight end Tyler Eifert. Met Life will be a tough road test for teams all year. Walking out with a W is something any team would take. AJ Green scorched Darelle Revis all day long, and good, but not great, Andy Dalton looks good enough to make Cincy the second best team in the division and a good bet for the playoffs.Deeeeeeeeeeep TD to @AJGreen_18.… And he beat @revis24 to do it. #CINvsNYJ— NFL (@NFL) September 11, 2016 5. Packers – Jordy Nelson is back from the knee injury that cost him all of the 2015 season and no one is happier than Aaron Rodgers. A-Rodg had 3 TD’s in the opener to start what he hopes is a bounce back season after a disappointing 2015. Green Bay didn’t play great against the Jags, but playing on the road in Florida is a uniquely physically draining experience for snow bird road teams. Tough road win and the Pack has a nice roster. They should be in the conversation at the end of the year.Rodgers was being pulled to the ground…But that was NOT stopping him.Crazy throw. Crazy catch. @Packers TD!— NFL (@NFL) September 11, 2016 10. Cardinals –  The Cardinals got Garoppolo’ed in the opener, but the Patriots played flawlessly, and it wasn’t all bad news for the Cards. Colin still isn’t entirely comfortable with where the offense is headed with Carson Palmer pulling the trigger. He likes the Arizona defensive personnel, and loves bell cow running back David Johnson. Johnson averaged 6.6 yards per touch in the loss and looks like he’ll be a load to handle. The Cardinals were efficient in the red zone, scoring 3 TD’s in three trips. Still a lot to like.9. Vikings – Colin still loves Minnesota’s stacked roster and ball hawking defense. Sean Hill was awful in the opener and proved why Minnesota made the right move to trade for Sam Bradford. A Bradford led Vikings offense is a legitimate threat to win playoff games this year. This team will look totally different in Week 10 than it did in Week 1, as in, better..@DHunt94_TX will take that all the way home.— Minnesota Vikings (@Vikings) September 11, 2016 .@AntonioBrown84 laughs at your double coverage.TD @Steelers! #PITvsWAS— NFL (@NFL) September 13, 2016That’s the Herd Hierarchy for Week 1, check back next Tuesday to see who’s in and who’s out.center_img 3. Broncos – Trevor Siemian didn’t blow anyone’s mind, but neither did Peyton Manning at the end of last year. The Broncos defense lost some key players, but somehow looks more intimidating this year than last. They forced 3 turnovers and beat up Cam Newton to the point where people were calling for a league inquiry. On offense, Denver is averaging 5 yards per carry, even though they have no threat of a passing game. They’re good in the trenches on both sides of the ball. Colin is a believer.When @DeMarcusWare gets the edge …#CARvsDEN— Denver Broncos (@Broncos) September 9, 2016 Advertisement 6. Giants – The G-Men went out and bought a defense. The impact of Olivier Vernon and Janoris Jenkins was apparent to anyone who has functioning eyes, even if it was against the Cowboys in Dak Prescott’s first start. New York has a 3-headed monster at receiver and it looks like they found a stud in Sterling Sheppard out of Oklahoma. Eli and a young team still have a lot of room for improvement. Good and getting better.So… @Giants WR @sterl_shep3 is a PROBLEM.Amazing. #NYGvsDAL #GiantsPride— NFL (@NFL) September 11, 2016 2. New England – Belichick does it shorthanded in Jimmy G’s debut on the road against a legitimate Cardinals team. Remarkable. No Gronk, no Brady. The game ball should go to organizational excellence. Colin has seen enough of Garoppolo to call him a franchise quarterback. The Pats will be scary once Brady is back with chip firmly on shoulder. Belichick is in a class by himself.Jimmy Garoppolo walking off the field after #Patriots 23-21 win in Arizona #WBZ @JimmyG_10— Joe Giza (@JoeGiza) September 12, 2016 8. Seahawks – Russell Wilson toughed out an ankle injury to lead the winning touchdown drive and squeak out an ugly 12 – 10 home win against the Dolphins. The Seattle juggernaut many predicted in the preseason may be on its way, but all 5 of the offensive lineman are playing out of position and they got abused by the Dolphin’s pass rush. That situation needs to improve. A wins a win, but it wasn’t up to expectations..@DangeRussWilson to @DougBaldwinJr is BACK.And they’re scoring game-winning TDs! #MIAvsSEA— NFL (@NFL) September 11, 2016last_img read more

Blazin 5 Prediction Podcast NFL Week 5

first_imgIt’s time for Colin’s Blazin’ 5 Prediction Podcast, and his weekly sit down with RJ Bell from to see where there’s agreement and disagreement from the Vegas wiseguys on his NFL Week 5 Blazin’ 5 picks.Colin is on the comeback trail after going 2-3 last week, following back to back winning weeks. He’s ready to roll and feeling confident about his hottest Blazin’ 5 of the year. This week, he’s heavy on the road dogs. Phillip Rivers and the Bolts are his play at Oakland in the Bay, Rex and the Bills going back to Cali, and Cincy heading into Big D to humble Dak and the Boys.So, what do the wiseguys say?Here’s Colin’s full Week 5 Blazin’ 5:San Diego (+3.5) at OaklandBuffalo (+2.5) at Los AngelesTennessee (+3.5) at MiamiWashington (+3.5) at Baltimore Cincinnati (+1) at DallasThe Blazin’ 5 Prediction Podcast is available every Saturday through the end of the football season.  Download and subscribe to it exclusively at, iHeart Radio, Google Play, or iTunes. Don’t be a mark.last_img read more

Phil Jackson reportedly not ruling out trading Kristaps Porzingis

first_imgThat sound you just heard was The Vertical’s Adrian Wojnarowski tweeting out the Woj bomb that Knicks President Phil Jackson has not ruled out trading budding superstar Kristaps Porzingis. Not surprisingly, teams are interested.Woj also said Jackson met with sharpshooting Arizona forward Lauri Markkanen, whom Jackson would consider drafting if they move on from Porzingis.Wow Phil Jackson is incompetent. He should team up with Dan Gilbert.Sources: As teams become aware Phil Jackson isn’t ruling out possibility of trading Kristaps Porzingis, frenzy of interest is growing today.— Adrian Wojnarowski (@WojVerticalNBA) June 20, 2017 Advertisement Sources: Phil Jackson met with Lauri Markkanen in New York on Monday, a player whom he’s considering at No. 8 should Knicks move Porzingis.— Adrian Wojnarowski (@WojVerticalNBA) June 20, 2017last_img read more

Fear for Conor McGregors safety could lead to an early fight stoppage

first_imgThe Cavs’ haul in the Kyrie Irving trade isn’t enough to convince LeBron to stayColin thinks the Celtics won the Kyrie Irving trade because they got the star, and the team that gets the star always wins the NBA trade, not the team that gets “stuff” like the Cavs. Many in the sports media saw it differently, and thought Cleveland got the better end of the deal.Colin doesn’t think the pieces Cleveland received in return for Irving will be enough to keep LeBron around, and that when it comes time for LeBron to make decision about where to play in 2018, the Lakers situation will be far more appealing to James.The Cavs will have to parlay some of the Celtics assets into a star by the trade deadline to have a shot at convincing him to stay. If not, he’s gone.Guests:Leonard Ellerbee – CEO of Mayweather promotions joins the show to discuss his expectations for the fight; if Floyd has been training at his highest level; if McGregor’s size is a concern.Doug Gottlieb – FS1 Hoops Analyst and host of The Doug Gottlieb Show is in-studio to give his take on the Kyrie Irving trade; why Danny Ainge deserves credit; and if the Cavs can do enough to convince LeBron to stay.Kenyon Martin – 15-year NBA veteran talks Kyrie to the Celtics; why the Cavs had to make the deal; and if D-Wade should join LeBron in Cleveland.Seth Joyner – Former Eagles and Cardinals linebacker is in-studio to explain what separates the good from the great NFL quarterbacks. Fear for Conor McGregor’s safety could lead to an early fight stoppageA recent New York Time article voiced the concerns of some longtime ringside physicians that fear Conor McGregor’s health could be in serious jeopardy against Floyd Mayweather. The article cited the recent death of MMA fighter Tim Hague, who sustained fatal injuries when he attempted to transition to boxing, and had similar concerns if the McGregor fight continues too long. It also calls into question if the fight should have been sanctioned in the first place by the Nevada State Athletic Commission.Colin thinks that those involved with the fight, including veteran boxing referee Richard Steele will be aware of the article, and it could lead to the fight being called early out of precaution.last_img read more